ESP-I-RING packing is applicable in as broad range of services as any mass transfer device. It is heavily used in distillation towers: from deep vacuum towers, where the low-pressure drop is crucial, to high-pressure towers, where capacity easily surpasses that of conventional trays. Many absorption and stripping towers, especially those aiming for high capacity or close approach to equilibrium, rely on I-RING packing. The low-pressure drop, high specific heat-transfer coefficient, as well as fouling resistance of I-RING packing contributes to its success in heat transfer towers, such as olefin plant quench columns. In a distillation system, uniform liquid and vapor distribution cause the HETP to be nearly independent of liquid and vapor rates. However, at higher vapor rates, the packing exhibits a region of improved efficiency (low HETP) where high vapor turbulence influences the liquid surfaces and improves the mass transfer.